• <progress id="1jjn0"><sub id="1jjn0"><font id="1jjn0"></font></sub></progress>
    <tbody id="1jjn0"><center id="1jjn0"><xmp id="1jjn0"></xmp></center></tbody>
  • <tbody id="1jjn0"><sub id="1jjn0"><xmp id="1jjn0"></xmp></sub></tbody><nav id="1jjn0"></nav><nav id="1jjn0"><font id="1jjn0"><var id="1jjn0"></var></font></nav>
    <var id="1jjn0"><input id="1jjn0"></input></var>
  • <tbody id="1jjn0"><sub id="1jjn0"></sub></tbody>
  • <nav id="1jjn0"><input id="1jjn0"><b id="1jjn0"></b></input></nav><progress id="1jjn0"></progress>
  • <progress id="1jjn0"></progress><progress id="1jjn0"></progress>
    <tbody id="1jjn0"></tbody><var id="1jjn0"></var>
    <var id="1jjn0"><input id="1jjn0"></input></var>

    写留学生作业价格贵吗?

    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-04-07 论文字数:2086字
    论文编号: sb2020031523084729922 论文语言:中文 论文类型:论文写作指导
    这篇文章主要介绍留学生作业需要辅导的相关背景,以及留学生作业价格的构成要素,希望对作业方面有需要的留学生们有所帮助。

    在国内多年的学业完成之后,有一定条件的同学很多都选择到国外去留学,一来是对自身专业能力的提升,二来是获得更好的学历镀金回来可以觅得非常不错的工作机会。国外的留学生生活是崭新的开始,全新的文化氛围、全新的师生朋友以及更加开阔的的视野,一切都看起来很美好;不过在此同时,留学生学业上的饱和度和压力却是不小的,除了要适应和加强自身的外语水平,还要应对导师布置的各式各样的作业,这和普通的做选择题还不同,这些留学生作业更多的是以开发式的长短不一的论文来完成,对于很多特别是外语基础弱的同学来说,每一想到DDL无形中就压力倍增。
     
    在这个时候,为了拿到理想的分数、为了不挂科,不少留学生都选择以一定的价格找代写作业,这在国外比较普遍,BBC有过统计,国外大学平均每7个毕业生中就有1名曾经有过让别人代写的经历。那么,写留学生作业的价格贵?根据各方面情况不一样,写留学生作业的价格也是不同的,建议结合自己具体的写作方向和主题还有自己能力现状,和成熟可靠的代写机构方面进行详细酌定。
     
     写留学生作业价格

    写留学生作业价格贵吗?最终价格会由如下不同的因素来综合衡量:
     
    1、代写机构的语言水平。
    如英语作业都是使用英语写作的,属于另一种语种行列,需要专业的英语人才才可完成,而一个写作水平高超的英语写手,聘请价格是很高的,自然会影响代写价格。
     
    2、不同的学位
    留学生作业都有相应的学位等级,比如英语硕士作业的价格肯定要高于英语本科;英语博士作业要高于硕士作业。
     
    3、交稿时间的要求
    本科英语作业的代写周期在15天左右,硕士英语作业的代写周期在一个月以上,而有的同学要稿很急,要求压缩代写时间,加大了写手难度,也会影响价格。
     
    4、专业领域
     一般来说,技术性的专科论文要求严谨,相比文学等文科类的论文,价格会相应偏高
     
    5、另外,作业类型、篇幅长短、是否包后期修改、代写机构的实力等,这些都会影响写留学生作业的最终价格。
     
     
    一篇好的代写完全可以令你的留学生生活更加多姿多彩。附上以往的作业范文供大家参考:
     
     
    An Empirical Study on Active Mutual Funds and Passive Index Mutual Funds&ETFs
     
      1.Research Question and Objective
     
      There is along-standing dilemma of the alternative between active and passive investment vehicles.Investors are often perplexed by risk-adjusted traits of actively managed mutual funds and index replication funds.In general,mutual funds and ETFs are both developed based on the theory of pooled fund investing which advocates diversified portfolio management.
     
      Mutual funds can be divided into actively and passively managed mutual funds which adopt different investment strategies.Meanwhile,most ETFs are created to track a benchmark index.Investors pursuing different investment strategies hold different perspectives towards these investment vehicles.Active investors believe the market is inefficient and thereby they can beat the market from time to time and earn excessive returns(alpha).These investors usually prefer actively managed funds to find an optimal portfolio.
     
      On the contrary,passive investors maintain the market is generally efficient and there is no way to consistently outperform the market.They only intend to earn the market return(beta)through investing in passively managed index mutual funds and ETFs.Therefore,active management is the key determinant that differs on these investment choices.
     
      The majority of financial literature contends that active investment strategies tend to underperform or be equivalent to their passively managed counterparts(Sharpe,1966,Gruber,1996).Given the flexibility and low trading costs of ETFs,many scholars claim investors should opt for passive funds.
     
      In order to shed more lights on this issue,the primary objective of this dissertation is to underline whether investors should be concerned in selecting between active and passive investment instruments.To achieve this objective,this paper will compare the performance of various mutual fund schemes(both active and passive mutual funds and ETFs)on the basis of risks and returns.
     
      2.Literature Review
     
      The selection of most ideal investment portfolio is always a challenge for individual investors.Active investment approach focuses on outperforming the underlying benchmark index by adopting fund managers’superior stock selection skills,while the passive approach focuses on tracking the performance of a relative benchmark index.
     
      Many studies show that on average actively managed funds do not create excessive returns for investors before and after transaction fees and expenses(Malkiel,1995;Bogle,1998).Moreover,many renowned scholars also echo the notion of constant underperformance of activeinvestment strategy by confirming that passive mutual funds deliver higher risk-adjusted performances after adjusting for expenses(Sharpe,1966).
     
      ETFs hold many advantages against active mutual funds,such as lower expense ratios,higher flexibility and tax benefits(Venkataraman&Venkatesan,2016;).ETFs can be traded based on their Net Asset Value(NAV)during intraday like a normal security whereas their actively managed open-end counterparts are normally priced basedon their NAV at the end of the trading day.
     
      Typically,mutual funds seek to outperform the market which put more tasks on the shoulder of fund managers to formulate the most profitable investment portfolio.Then the management fees as well as the transaction costs will be higher compared to ETFs’operational expenses.Conservative investors who do not want to take the extra risk that is above the market risk would go for ETFs.
     
      According to Andreu et al.(2012),investors can acquire an annual excess return of 5%by chasing the momentum of ETFs.Rompotis(2011)examines the performance and systematic risk(beta)of ETFs and mutual funds in Greek market and concludes that ETFs adopts more conservative strategy than competitive mutual funds and generate better performance than mutual funds as well.
     
      Bogle,(1998)presents a trade-off hypothesis,indicating the trade-off nature between fund selection opportunities and low costs funds.He suggests it would be wise for investors to choose low expense funds at the expense of reduced fund selection options.Malkiel(1995)investigates the performance and the level of survivorship bias of all available equity mutual funds on a 21-year time horizon.He confirms that actively managed mutual funds typically underperform their benchmark indices.
     
      Moreover,the survivorship bias seems stronger than the estimation of previous researches which leads to the overestimation of existing mutual funds’performance.Malkielalso suggests since the market is generally efficient and then the so-called arbitrage opportunities won’t exist in the long-haul.Accordingly,investors will have a better chance to earn superior risk-adjusted returns through investing passively managed funds.

     写留学生作业价格贵吗
      
           Rompotis(2009)compares the performance of active and passive ETFs and index mutual funds.As a continuation to the previous literature,his research outcomes demonstrate that both passive ETFs and index mutual funds outperform actively managed ETFs which add more empirical evidence to root for passive investing strategies.
     
      The phenomenon of active funds are inferior to their passive peers doesn’t exist solely among equity mutual funds.Using US bond mutual funds as research target,Blake et al.(1993)find out that fixed incomemutual funds also underperform their underlying indices.They also reveal that as management fees increase the returns decrease accordingly.
     
      With overwhelming research findings supporting passive investing strategies,it would be reasonable to believe that the majority investors will go for index funds and ETFs.Nevertheless,  active mutual funds experienced an explosive growth over the past few decades,suggesting the relative lower returns and higher costs didn’t stop investors to allocate their assets on these funds.
     
      Gruber(1996)recognizes this phenomenon as the mutual fund puzzle.If the majority of investors only choose passive funds,this will trigger the market to become inefficient as no one tries to earn excessive returns.Some contend that the real value of active investing is to improve the efficiency of the market by optimizing asset allocation(Jones&Wermers,2011).
     
      Others like Minor(2001)suggests that active mutual funds can beat passive funds during certain time horizon.Furthermore,there are a set of empirical studies find out actively managed equity mutual funds can generate higher net of fees returns measured by alpha from different asset pricing models against their peer sector ETFs and index ETFs(Xiong,etal.,2010).
     
      Rai&Raman(2014)also indicate small and mid-cap mutual funds in India substantially outperform their benchmark indices over different time durations.Their research findings suggest it might be better to select research targets in mature and efficient market because the capital markets in emerging economies provides more arbitrage opportunities.
     
      This dissertation aims to measures the performance of active mutual funds,index funds and ETFs to determine which investment schemes can generate additional value for investors.Then,we might be able to provide additional evidence to answer the question of whether active investing is inferior to passive.This paper’s research outcomes can also provide useful information that when it comes to asset allocation investors need to pay attention to an investment objective’s expense ratio and transaction costs rather than exclusively past performances.
     
      3.Methodology
     
      This paper will focus on analyzing the monthly net asset values of active mutual funds,index funds and passive ETFs in US with a 10-year time span.The evaluation of risk-adjusted returns of research samples is operated by implementing of single-factor and multi-factor asset pricing models.
     
      These models include Capital Asset Pricing Model(Sharpe,1964;)and Fama French Three-Factor Model(Fama&French,1993).NAV data for all sample funds will be extracted from the Thomson Reuters Datastream.The monthly NAVs range from 2008 to 2017 for each sample investments.
     
      The dissertation deems a 10-year period is suitable for the study because it encompasses the diverse economic cycle.A shorter time span might carry too much noise to yield a normal investment pattern.This dissertation will select large-cap equity mutual funds,index funds and ETFs domiciled in the US as research targets.
     
      In order to properly implement CAPM and Fama French Three-Factor,this paper will use Standard&Poor’s 500 as equity market portfolio proxy.With regard to the risk-free rate,this study intends to follow the mainstream literature applying the 3-Month US Treasury Bill monthly ask yield as a proxy.
     
      As for the three-factor model,the additional data of HML and SMB variables will be gathered from the Kenneth and French online library.These parameters are essential for the regression analysis in order to calculate alphas of sample funds if present.In addition,to properly conduct the comparative analysis,this research paper will also measure the tracking error of sample index funds and ETFs to determine how far these passively managed investment schemes stray from the benchmark indices they mimic.






    原文地址:http://www.workforlgbt.org/dxlxszy/29922.html,如有转载请标明出处,谢谢。

    您可能在寻找留学生作业方面的范文,您可以移步到留学生作业频道(http://www.workforlgbt.org/dxlxszy/)查找


    上一篇:媒体与传播学欧洲留学作业:电影是一种有效反应问题的媒介
    下一篇:没有了
    相关留学生作业论文
    楚雄亲俏网络科技有限公司