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    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-17 论文字数:38899字
    论文编号: sb2020031323155729902 论文语言:中文 论文类型:硕士毕业论文

    Chapter One Interpretive Theory

    1.1 Literature Review
    Since interpreting enters into world stage, experts, scholars and practitioners in the interpreting field have been studied on scientific guiding theory and methodology for interpreting work. In 1970s, several professional interpreters discovered new theories for interpreting through their experiences and reflections. And the Interpretive Theory put forward by Danica Seleskovitch and Marianne Lederer has been one of the most influential and symbolic interpreting theories.
    In 1968, renowned French expert Danica Seleskovitch published L’Interprète dans les  conférences  internationals-Problèmes  de  langage  et  de  communication (Interpreting  for  International  Conferences-Problems  of  Language  and Communication),  which  was  seen  as  the  foundation  work  of  the  Interpretive Theory (Gong, 2008: 81). During the following decades, Danica Seleskovitch, along with other researchers,  gradually  summarized  and  refined  a  set  of  relatively  well-developed interpreting theory, known as the Interpretive Theory or the Sense-Based Theory. 
    In  1984,  Danica  Seleskovitch  and  Marianne  Lederer  co-published  the  book Interpréter pour Traduire (Interpretation Studies) marking the official establishment of the Interpretive Theory. The 1980s witnessed the important advancements of the theory. During this period, relevant research findings emerged one after another. Researchers expand the  scope of theoretical applications from interpreting to translation with the intention  of  examining  the  scientific  sense  of  the  Interpretive  Theory  as  a  general translation theory. In addition, researchers also made great efforts to enrich and improve the theory by way of employing the fruits of other disciplines. In 1994, the publication of La Traduction aujourd' hui - le modele interpretative (Translation-The Interpretive Model)  written  by  Marianne  Lederer  marked  the  maturity  and  completion  of  the Interpretive Theory.

    1.2 Theoretical Framework
    Scholars  of  the  Interpretive  Theory  school  believe  that  both  consecutive interpreting  and  simultaneous  interpreting  are  conducted  with  a  certain  interpreting procedure,  which  can  further  be  divided  into  three  steps:  comprehension,  de-verbalization,  and  re-expression,  namely,  the  triangular  model  of  Interpretive  theory (Wang,  2017:  20).  It  provides  interpreting  learners  with  systematic,  scientific  and practical  interpreting  methods  and  training  approaches.  They  deem  “translation  as interpretation” for interpreting is neither the absolute language behavior nor the simple transition process from one language to another. The attention paid by interpreters lies in the opinions and thoughts that the speakers intend to convey instead of the form of source language. To this end, interpreters are supposed to free them from the formed chains  of  source  language,  procure  the  meaning  from  what  the  speaker  says, subsequently interpret it to the audience (Zhang, 2011: 74).
    According  to  the  triangular  model  of  the  Interpretive  Theory,  the  interpreting process  can  be  divided  into  three  stages  as  comprehension,  de-verbalization,  and  re-expression.
    First,  the  comprehension  of  source  material  means  that  interpreters,  through listening  to  the  language  information,  are  able  to  get  valid  information  in  different levels ranging from phoneme, morpheme, phrase, sentence, and passage and digest the information with their cognitive knowledge. The theory acknowledges comprehension as the first step and the indispensable step of interpreting. 
    Nevertheless, the interpreter’s understanding of source material fails to help the him/her to finish the whole interpreting process. Language transcoding cannot be done without  the  extraction  of  sense,  namely  de-verbalization.  Lederer  defined  it  as  “The stage  between  interpreters’  understanding  to  discourse  and  re-expression  in  target language. Besides, the de-verbalization of language symbol of source text is triggered by  cognitive  sense  and  emotional  sense”  (Lederer,  2011:  213).  Interpreters  are  not relying on stenography or reading the note to interpret but to re-process the received information based on their understanding and then convey such message to the audience of target language in an appropriate manner. If the interpreters just know each word’s meaning of source language without deverbalizing it, they would just know the scrappy or detached ideas and the logical connection between sentences would be definitely lost and thus the quality of target language will be lowered. 

     Chapter Two Procedural Description of Interpreting

    2.1 Before interpreting
    2.1.1 Task Description
    This report takes an interpreting practice of mock conference made by the present writer as the source material. This mock conference is held by her interpreting teachers and  classmates  and  they  play  the  role  of  the  organizer  and  audience  accordingly.  In order to present a real interpreting environment, the working flow from the discussion of  the  conference  theme,  identification  of  conference  name  and  the  invitation  of speakers to the composition of conference manual is well conducted.
    The present writer, also the interpreter, receives the conference manual two weeks prior  to  the  conference.  The  name  of  the  mock  conference  is  “The  development  of China’s Environment Protection” and its objective is to discuss the current status, past achievements  and  future  challenges  of  environmental  protection  in  China.  The interpreting mode for this conference is consecutive interpreting. 
    The information like speakers and their speech titles is listed in the meeting agenda and the interpreter can take it as an important reference. The whole conference contains seven speeches including “Protecting the Nature by Law” delivered by Ge Feng, “Is China  Short  of  Water?”  delivered  by  Wolfgang  Kinzelbach,  and  “Fight  for  the  Blue Skies” by Hao Jiming. They discuss China’s environmental protection from different perspectives  based  on  their  research  focuses.  One  thing  needs  to  mention  that  Mr. Kinzelbach is not a native Chinese speaker but he is able to communicate in Chinese. After asking  the organizer  of the mock  conference, the  present  writer knows  that  he will  deliver  his  speech  in  Chinese.  Apparently,  his  accented  Chinese  expression  has some difficult points such as improper usage of words or phrases that increases some obstacles for the interpreter. 

    2.2 While interpreting
    The mock conference is held in multimedia classroom at 9:00 am. To make sure everything goes well, the interpreter is required to show up one hour earlier checking the video players, earphones and voice recorder. The objective of this mock interpreting for  the  present  writer  is  to  experience  the  procedures  of  real  interpreting  work  and examine  her  interpreting  performance.  Thus,  the  whole  conference  is  recorded  for further studies and analysis. 
    After finishing checking all the devices, the present writer discusses with one of the organizers who is in charge of playing videos. Since this is a mock interpreting, all the videos are prepared as unstopped speeches. In this case, the present writer needs someone to pause the video at about every two to three minutes. In addition, the present writer needs to take out the printed glossary, pens, and notebooks for note-taking. 
    As all preparations are set up, the mock conference is officially kicking off. Fully mental preparation is necessary for the present writer as the video is starting to play. Due to the special requirements for public speech interpreting,the interpreter should present  on  the  stage  together  with  the  speaker  facing  the  audiences  with  different backgrounds,  which  means  the  present  writer  has  to  shoulder  certain  psychologist pressure. To overcome such stress, the present writer uses positive self-suggestion to reduce the tension. With the reference of the notes and her short-memory, the present writer interprets at a moderate speed in a logical and clear manner. Besides, she also observes  the  response  of  the  audience,  which  is  also  a  method  to  check  whether the audiences  have  understood  or  been  satisfied  with  her  performance.  Thanks  to  the thorough  preparation  in  thematic  knowledge  and  interpreting  strategies  in  the  early stage, the whole interpreting process goes well.

    Chapter Three Case Studies on Interpretive Strategies ···················· 15
    3.1 Analysis of the Source Material ·································· 15
    3.1.1 Nature of Source Material ··························· 15
    3.1.2 Features and Difficulties····························· 15

    Chapter Three Case Studies on Interpretive Strategies

    3.1 Analysis of the Source Material
    3.1.1 Nature of Source Material
    Interpreters may encounter different speech types including introductive, narrative and  persuasive  speech  type  in  accordance  with  their  structural  development  and discoursal  function.  The  interpreting  strategies  is  adjusted  with  the  shifting  of discourses, especially in listening and memory. These three speakers share their own experience with the projects of environmental protection that they have participated in. In light of the discoursal classification mentioned above, the source material is deemed as  introductory  discourse  for it  is  proceeded  with  time,  space,  or  changes  of  figures including some opening words, plotlines, climax and denouements. Moreover, neither of these three speeches is confined to one category of discourse but bears more than two features of text (Lu, 2009:15). 
    For an interpreter, interpreting a Chinese speech does not mean that every element in the ST needs to be interpreted directly. Through the process of de-verbalization, the present writer procures the key information of ST and put the word “上诉”in right position, which conforms to the Interpretive Theory. Although in this way the form of ST  is  changed,  its  meaning  remains.  Compared  with  other  modes  of  interpreting, interpreters  have  longer  time  to  ingest  and  process  the  information  in  consecutive interpreting,  for  instance,  the  addition  and  subtraction  of  two  numbers.  Thus,  the present writer calculates the “两个 189 万” into “CNY 3.78 million”, which emphasizes the large amount of legal fee but also clearly conveyed the information in a simplified manner.

    This report is based on a consecutive interpreting practice of mock conference themed with “The Development of China’s Environmental Protection”. The present writer analyzes the nature and features of the original speech, and summarizes the difficulties that she encountered during her interpreting practice such as redundant information,  technical  terms,  culture-loaded  words,  polysemy  an  unclear  logic. To solve  these  difficulties,  she  provides  the  coping  strategies  as  “simplification”, “cognitive complements”, and “logic-processing” under the guidance of Interpretive Theory.
    Major Findings
    With the aid of the Interpretive Theory, the present writer is able to procure the meaning  of  source  material  through  omission  and  generalization,  select  the appropriate  English  expressions  of  poly-semantic  words  within  the  context  and proper  interpretation  of  culture-loaded  words  by  cognitive  complements,  and optimize the repeated expression as well as the unclear logic via reformulation and amplification for logic during the interpreting. In this report, the present writer lays great emphasis on the case analysis combined with the introduction of interpreting strategies  and  specific  skills.  Through  the  case  analysis,  the  guidance  of  the Interpretive  Theory  in  consecutive  interpreting  of  public  speech  related  to environmental protection have been explained. 
    Deemed  as  an  effective  method  for  interpreting  research  and  training,  mock conference interpreting paves a way for interpreters to experience the work flow of real  interpreting  work.  Through  this  practice,  the  present  writer  deepens  her understanding  of  the  knowledge  related  to  environmental  protection  and  how  the Interpretive Theory works for the consecutive interpreting in this field.