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    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-20 论文字数:23695字
    论文编号: sb2020031717301329967 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文

    1 Introduction

    1.1 Research Background
    As a kind of genre for disseminating information and reflecting the times, news serves asthe most direct and fastest way for people to know about the world. Today, with theincreasingly close international exchanges, people's vision has not been limited to only focuson the domestic news. English news, as the most widely spread foreign language news in theworld, is also an important channel for countries to capture the things happening in the world.In recent years, with the improvement of China's national strength, China's internationalimage has caught the attention of the world. Apart from traditionally grasping the newsletterfrom the domestic media, Chinese people also casts concern on the reports of foreign mediaon Chinese events, especially the Western media with English as the official language.Through the reports of foreign media on the same incident in China, one can see how theforeigners see China. At the same time, for those overseas Chinese and foreign students whohave lived abroad for many years, they are exposed to foreign media reports on Chineseevents. Therefore, the reports of foreign media are,to some extent, a mirror of China’sexternal propaganda and another reflection of China's international image.
    For most readers in China, there is a need for reading the translated news, which requiresthe translators to compile English news into Chinese version. However, due to the diversity insocial, historical, cultural, and ideological aspects of different countries, or out of politicalpurposes, many reports on China by the media of the West are not accurate, and sometimeseven biased. As such, translators are in duty bound to translate and edit the news to make surethe news authenticity goes first.

    1.2 Purposes and Significance
    For a long time, domestic research on translation theory mainly focused on the literarygenre, selecting literary works as the research corpus. Compared with the thriving course theliterary translation has been through home and abroad, the news translation seems to bein the elementary phase, remains to be further developed. But as a matter of fact, in spite ofthe large amount of news translation practices, the theoretical study on this field stillrelatively needs to be enriched largely. Today, with the increasingly close internationalexchanges, people are eager to have insight into the world's current affairs through a broaderperspective. News translation, however, still lack of systematic guidance and in-depthresearch both theoretically and practically. Most of the translators engaged in news translationin China are hidden behind the news editing and kept in the invisible status, strenuouslyexploring the methods and principles of news translation in practice. The thesis will combinetheoretical research with case study by taking Lefevere's rewriting theory as a theoreticalframework.
    This paper aims to explore how the rewriting theory guides news translation well, toobtain the factors influencing the news translation and the translation strategies. This paperalso tends to figure out how dominant ideology and poetics factors in the target society andculture manipulate the translator's choice of the translation strategies. The analysis andjustification of the translation methods are not only conducted from linguistic perspective butalso from a more macro social and cultural angle. Selecting the contrastive cases from theoriginal English text of foreign media reports and the translated version of the official websiteof Reference News and Global Times, this paper reaches the issues on the differences betweenthe source text and the target text under the guidance of André Lefevere's cultural rewritingtheory, from the perspectives of ideology as well as the poetics factors and points out thetranslation strategies Chinese news translators choose, also further analyzes the reasonsbehind the different translation strategies.

    2 Literature Review

    2.1 Introduction of the Rewritin Theory
    The 1980s witnessed the Translation Studies school gradually burgeoning. It brought thetranslation studies into a wide variety of fields not just limited to the language and structure,thereby giving the birth of cultural turn,which targeted at the impact the cultural factor exertson the translation. André Lefevere is one of the representatives of Translation Studies school.Scholars at this time such as: Gideon Toury, Theo Hermans, Susan Bassnet and AndréLefevere put the translated literary work into the social background and literary systems of thetarget language culture and explored its influence on the target language. In 1985, thepublication of The Manipulation of Literature marked the shift of the focus of translationscholars from the original text to the target text[1].
    In 1985, in the collection of Theo Hermans named: The rewriting of Literature: Studiesin Literary Translation, there is an article called Why Waste Our Time On Rewrites, theTrouble with the Role of Rewriting in an Alternative Paradigm written by André Lefevere, inwhich, André Lefevere first proposed the Rewriting concept[2], expounding the basic elementsof the theory[3].
    Lefevere identified ideology, poetics, and patron as the three basic influencing factorsin the subsequent phase which underwent a process of formation and development.
    In 1981, André Lefevere introduced the concept “refraction” [4] in his article namedTranslated Literature: Towards an Integrated Theory, which referred to the adapted texts thatconform to the target poetics and ideology, thus can satisfying the target readers[5]. Heexpounded his viewpoint that translation would be restrained by poetics and ideology.

    2.2 Previous Studies on the Rewriting Theory
    Since André Lefevere proposed the rewriting theory, foreign scholars have been probinginto the theory. Scholars' discussion of rewriting theory focuses on two points: how manyelements the rewriting theory proposed by André Lefevere contains and what they are.Scholars focus on the relationship between the translation and a certain element involved inthe rewriting theory.
    Gentzlert sorted out several major translation schools in the West, including theTranslation Studies school and Lefevere's rewriting theory, however, he did not confirm thethree elements in his book called Contemporary Translation Theories. [9]
    In his book, Munday classified the three factors into the new category including theprofessionals, patronage and mainstream poetics[10]. But the new classification has not causedwidespread concern. Snell-Hornby insisted that there were two elements involved[11].
    Hermans believed that the literary system should be the basis of the classification[12].That is, the external factors of the literary system include ideology and patrons, and theinternal factors of the literary system are other factors like poetics.
    As we can see above, the main focus of foreign scholars on the study of rewriting theorylies in the main factors it contains. This is related to the specific content of the theory and thescope of theoretical use. But so far, the views of scholars are still inconsistent.Secondly, Western scholars have further focused their research on the specific factorscontained in the rewriting theory, such as ideology, poetics, and patron. Scholars will studythe relationship between a specific factor and literary translation and its production, to explorehow the element guides the specific literary practices.

    3 Methdology............................................12
    3.1 Research Questions.......................................12
    3.2 Research Methods...........................................12
    4 The Analysis of News Translation under the Guidance of the Rewriting Theory....14
    4.1 The Analysis of News Translation from the Perspective of Ideology.............14
    4.1.1 The Political Factors ................................... 14
    4.1.2 The Cultural Factors ........................................... 17
    5 Conclusion ...................................... 3
    5.1 Main Findings........................32
    5.2 Limitations and Future Prospects...................................33

    4 The Analysis of News Translation under the Guidance of the RewritingTheory

    4.1 The Analysis of News Translation from the Perspective of Ideology
    As a kind of interlingual and intercultural communication, translation has inevitablybeen imprinted with the culture from the very beginning. Since the appearance of cultural turnin translation studies, more attention has been paid to the relationship between the culture andthe translation. As a part of culture, ideology exerts great influence on the news composing.As the representative of Translation Studies, Lefevere has his own opinions on the influencethe ideology exerts on translation. He redefined the ideology, which means “the grid of form,convention and belief that guide our actions” (Lefevere, 1992:16). Furthermore, he describedthe ideology as “the conceptual grid that consists of opinions and attitudes deemed acceptablein a certain society at a certain time, and through which readers and translators approachtexts”.
    News, as the selected information source facing the public, has its own value system,orientation, as well as firm stand, and those factors are determined by the mainstreamideology of society. Due to the different mainstream ideologies caused by respective culture,politics, social background and history, Chinese and western journalists tend to show differentvalue orientations, especially reflected in the selection of news events, expression approachand the selection of the position, attitude and so on. Therefore, when the two contradistinctivemainstream ideologies have a head-on confrontation in the process of translation, translatorshave to conduct a series of adaptations in order to make the target text conforms to themainstream ideology which is acceptable in a certain society. In the process of E-C newstranslation, some translation methods adopted would rewrite the news thus making the targettext acceptable by the Chinese readers.

    5 Conclusion

    5.1 Main Findings
    In the process of news translation, some adaptations based on the differences oflanguages and cultures can make the translated text conforms to the norms of target society’spolitics and cultures. The rewriting theory provides the theoretical support for the paper.
    First of all, from the perspective of ideology, the translator needs to rewrite the originaltext in order to make the translated news conform to the ideology of Chinese readers. Whenprocessing different original texts, translators are influenced by different factors, sometimesinfluenced by political factors in ideology, and sometimes by social and cultural factors inideology. Translators therefore need to adopt specific rewriting strategies to shape newstranslation.We can see that the translator will use the addition method, the omission methodand the replacement method to rewrite the original text, thus making the translated news liveup to the criteria of Chinese news.
    Secondly, from the perspective of poetics, although English and Chinese news aresimilar in basic news structure, that is the inverted pyramid structures, English and Chinesediffer significantly in the way of expression. Translators are required to rewrite the text at thelanguage level during translating. Based on that, compared with the original news, the targettext would be changed from three aspects: the vocabulary, the narrative and the rhetoric.Therefore, the adjustments are made to deal with the contradiction. As for the lexicaldifferences, the corresponding rewriting strategies are the replacement of the networkbuzzword, colloquial words, and some expressions with Chinese characteristics, such asidioms, saying, motto, proverbs, slang and allusions; as for the syntactic differences, thecorresponding rewriting strategy is transformation between information preposition andinformation postposition; as for the rhetorical differences, the corresponding rewritingstrategies are: retaining the source language rhetoric and replacing the source languagerhetoric.