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    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-23 论文字数:35844字
    论文编号: sb2020031922595130020 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
    本文是一篇英语论文,本研究运用比较文学变异理论对曹顺庆的创作叛逆进行了资料检索和分析,旨在阐释这些作家在翻译《辛戈》剧作时的创作叛逆,尤其是误译和改编。首先,本研究发现郭沫若在1920第一次认识John Synge。在田汉的推荐下,郭沫若认识了这位剧作家,并在同一年写了一些关于爱尔兰的诗。1924年,郭沫若在日本读了辛格的戏剧集,回到上海后开始翻译他的作品。1926年,他的译本出版了。通过对《唐棣之花》及其译本的分析,作者还发现了《唐棣之花》与辛戈戏剧翻译中的创造性叛逆之间的密切关系,尤其是对《唐棣》和《唐棣》形象的误译。接着,本文进一步研究了辛戈在日本的发展,发现那些将爱尔兰文学和辛戈介绍到中国的中国作家都受到了日本爱尔兰爱好者的影响。而这些日本作家在翻译和译介《诗经》时也表现出了自己的创造性叛逆。从而进一步解释了中国作家引进和翻译爱尔兰文学和句法的原因。


    1.1 Research Background
    Tracing back history, Irish literature is by no means irrelevant to the modernization of Chinese  literature.  As  early  as  the  May  Fourth  New  Culture  Movement,  instead,  many famous writers have introduced Irish literature to China, such as Guo Moruo, Tian Han, Mao Dun,  Lu  Xun,  etc.  Besides,  influenced  by  the  Irish  Literary  Revival,  the  National  Drama Movement led by Zhao Taimou and Yu Shangyuan has also left its own marks on the history of the Chinese play. John Millington Synge, as a representative playwright of the movement in Ireland, also was introduced to the China. As the first and only author who has translated Synge‘s all Plays, Guo  Moruo led the attention of the Chinese  writers to the playwright, depending on his unique aesthetic taste and pragmatic spirit.
    1.1.1 Introduction of John Synge
    John Millington Synge, an Irish playwright and prose writer, was a key figure in the Irish Literary  Revival and  one  of the  co-founders  of the  Abbey Theatre.  Born in Dublin,  Synge studied in Trinity College in 1888, starting his literary production after graduation. In 1896, Synge met W. B. Yeats in Paris, who encouraged him to live a while in Aran Islands to look for  something  to  write  about.  The  life  in  Aran  Islands  brought  him  a  lot  of  inspirations, helping him become an outstanding realistic dramatist. Synge‘s literary career, unfortunately, was not long, lasting only about a decade, and then he died in 1909, leaving the world 6 plays.

    1.2 Literature Review
    As the first one introducing Synge‘s plays into China, the literary relationship between the  two  writers  deserves  analysis  and  investigation.  Since  the  1980s,  the  study  of  foreign literature in China has gradually resumed, bringing scholars‘ discussion between Guo Moruo and Synge. 
    Although  the  number  of  the  studies  about  the  literary  relationship  between  the  two writers  at  home  and  abroad  is  not  up  to  our  expectations,  there  are  still  some  research achievements.  Most  of the  studies are  based  on the  perspectives of  comparative literature, while others focus on the translation. The previous researches are summed up as follows:   
    (1) On the aesthetic purports and creative ideas
    Some  researchers  tend  to  analyze  the  aesthetic  purports  and  creative  ideas  shared between the two dramatists. For example, Liu Jue (1986) pointed out that the bond between Guo Moruo and John  Synge was their common points in their theatrical aesthetic ideal and dramatic  artistic  temperament.  While  Zhong  Dehui  (1984)  mentioned  that  Guo  Moruo believed  that  Synge‘s  sympathy  with  the  lower  classes  made  his  dramas  outstanding.  In addition, Yuan Diyong (1993) considered that the factors of realism existing in Synge‘s works were the motivation for Guo to translate those plays.
    (2) Synge‘s influence on Guo Moruo
    Analyzing the impact of  Synge on Guo is  still a hot  spot for  some researchers. In  the master's thesis, Yan Biyu (2009) pointed out that the colloquial words used by Guo to express the character‘s moods are influenced by John Synge, and Yan Biyu also noted In the Shadow of the Glen as well as the blind person in Nie Ying as examples to support the point. Besides, in  another  master  thesis,  Yan  Xiaoying  (2007)  pointed  out  that  the  symbolism  in  Guo Moruo‘s  play  Morning,  was  influenced  by  Riders  to  the  Sea,  which  is  one  of  the representatives among symbolism dramas.  


    2.1 The Variation theory of Comparative Literature
    The  variation  theory  of  comparative  literature  is  a  new  field  in  the  comparative literature.  The  proposal  of  this  theory  forms  the  third  stage  of  the  world  comparative literature, the  Chinese school. This school focuses on heterogeneity and variation. The first school, the French school, mainly about the influence study, focuses on the empirical study. The  second  school,  mainly  constituted by  the  American  school, is  featured  by the  parallel study and interdisciplinary study.
    With the development of world comparative literature, Chinese school put forward the variation theory of comparative literature. In 2005, Professor Cao Shunqing put forward the concept  at  the  eighth  Annual  Conference  and  International  Symposium  of  Chinese Comparative Literature in 2005. In  his  The Study of  Comparative  Literature (2010) and a series of other articles and books, he has gradually built up the Variation Theory. In 2013, he published  the  book  The  Variation  Theory  of  Comparative  Literature,  systematically presenting the theory to the international community。
    This book systematically talks about the theory. In the book, this theory is defined as: on the basis of crossing and literariness, the Variation Theory of Comparative Literature is the  study  on  variations  of  the  literary  phenomena  of  different  countries  with  or  without factual  contact  as  well  as  the  comparative  study  on  the  heterogeneity  and  variability  of different literary expressions in the same subject area so as to achieve the goal of exploring the patterns of intrinsic differences and variability (2013: 32).

    2.2 Creative Treason
    In the perspective of the  Variation Theory, the core of Medio-translatology is Creative Treason.  In  fact,  Medio-translatology  is  developed  by  professor  Xie  Tianzheng  in  China. And  Professor  Cao  Shunqing  applied  Xie‘s  ideas  in  his  book.  Cao  Shunqing  defined Medio-translatology that:
    Strictly speaking, Medio-translatology is a study of literature and culture instead of a study of  language,  because  its  concern  is  the  loss,  distortion,  addition,  and  extension  of  the original  information  in  language  transmission  instead  of  the  transformation  between foreign  and  native  languages,  and  it  is  concerned  with  what  is  the  unique  value  and significance  of  translation  (literary  translation)  as  an  activity  in  intercultural communication (2013: 133).
    In  fact,  according  to  Cao  Shunqing,  the  core  of  Medio-translatology  is  Creative Treason. It was firstly put forward by Robert Escarpit, which means:
    Translation  puts  works  into  a  completely  unanticipated  reference  system;  people  say translation  is  creative,  because  it  gives  the  works  brand-new  looks  and  broadly  provides the  readers  brand-new  literary  communication,  and  also  because  translation  prolongs  the life of the work and gives it another life ( 2013: 34).
    In  Professor  Cao‘s  eyes,  the  essential  characteristic  of  Creative  Treason  is  that  it introduces  a  text  to  a  different  environment  of  acceptance  and  changes  its  form  by  the author. The research on the Creative Treason from the perspective of Variation  Theory has shifted  the  research  emphasis  from  the  translator  self  to  the  ways,  reasons,  effects  and culture,  expanding  the  horizon  of  the  study.  Analyzing  the  creative  treason  of  literary phenomena  from  the  variation  theory  not  only  pays  much  attention  to  the  variation  in linguistic  level,  but  also  aims  to  deep  the  cultural  background  and  internal  reasons  which lead to the variation.

    3.1 Irish Literature and Synge in the May Fourth New Culture Movement ................... 12
    3.2 Guo Moruo and John Synge .................................. 15
    3.2.1 Discovery of Synge .......................................... 15
    3.2.2 Synge’s Influence and Guo’s Creative Treason ........................ 19
    CHAPTER FOUR   SYNGE IN JAPAN ................................ 27
    4.1 Irish Literary Revival in Japan ..............................27
    4.1.1 Irish Literature in Meiji Period(1895-1912) ..........................................27
    4.1.2 Irish Literature in Taisho Period (1912-1926)........................... 29
    CAPTER FIVE   COMPARISON BETWEEN GUO MORUO AND JAPANESE WRITERS ..................................... 42
    5.1 Chinese Writers‘ Acceptance of Irish Literature and Japan ....................................... 42
    5.1.1 The Influence of Japanese Writers on Chinese Writers .................................... 42
    5.1.2 The Orientation of Chinese Writers .................................... 43


    5.1 Chinese Writers’ Acceptance of Irish Literature and Japan 
    Irish  Literary  Revival  was  famous  in  the  early  20th  century,  so  many  writers  in different  countries  put  their  eyes  on  the  achievements  of  this  movement.  In  the  Far  East, Japanese  writers and Chinese  writers  shows  some  differences and  similarities among  their attitude and acceptance of Irish literature and Synge. Thus, analyzing their apposite attitudes towards Synge not  only deepen researchers understanding of Guo Moruo‘s introduction  of Synge, but also is helpful to realize Chinese writers‘ uniqueness.   
    5.1.1 The Influence of Japanese Writers on Chinese Writers
    Since the late 19th century, the Irish Literary Revival has gradually attracted the world's attention. Japan in the East Asia firstly showed concern for and absorption of Irish literature. The "Irish fever" in Japan naturally attracted the attention of a group of Chinese students who studied in Japan, thus promoting Chinese writers‘ attention to Irish literature during China's May Fourth New Culture Movement. In other words, Japan serves as a bridge between China and  Ireland  in  the  early  20th  century.  Interestingly,  there  are  similarities  and  differences between Chinese and Japanese writers in absorbing Irish literature.


    6.1 Findings of the Thesis 
    As  one  of  the  representatives  of  Irish  Literature,  John  Synge  has  been  introduced  to China  for  about  one  hundred  years,  and  he  is  still  being  discussed  by  many  Chinese researchers.  However,  there  are  still  some  parts  remaining  to  be  researched.  For  Chinese researchers, discussing Synge‘s development in China is necessary and meaningful. 
    During the  material  search and analysis of the different translations of Synge‘s plays, this  research applied Cao  Shunqing‘s  Creative Treason  from the  perspective  of  Variation Theory  of  Comparative  Literature,  to  explain  those  writers  creative  treason  in  their translations of Synge‘s plays, especially the mistranslation and adaptation.
    Firstly,  this  research  found  that  Guo  Moruo  firstly  knew  John  Synge  in  1920.  With Tian  Han‘s  recommendation,  Guo  knew  the  playwright  and  wrote  some  poems  about Ireland in the same year. In 1924, Guo read Synge‘s drama collections in Japan, and began to  translate  his  works  after  he  came  back  to  Shanghai.  In  1926,  his  translation  published. Through  the  analysis  of  his  The  Flower  of  Tang  Di  and  his  translations,  the  author  also found the tight relationship between The Flower of Tang Di and his creative treason in the translation of Synge‘s plays, especially the mistranslation in the image of ―Tang Di‖ and ―Di Tang‖. Then, this thesis  further studied Synge‘s development in Japan at that time, finding that  those  Chinese  writers  who  introduced  Irish  literature  and  Synge  to  China  had  been influenced  by  Japanese  Irish  lovers.  And  these  Japanese  writers  show  their  own  creative treason in their translation and introduction of Synge. Thus, it further explains the causes of Chinese  writers‘ introduction and translation  of Irish  literature and Synge.  At  last, through the comparisons of Chinese writers, especially Guo Moruo and some Japanese writers, this thesis  found  that  Guo  Moruo‘s  acceptance  of  Synge  is  different  from  Japanese  writers, which  contributes  him  to become  the leading role in the trend of introducing Synge at that time.  Chinese writers did not accept Synge in Japanese writer‘s preference. On the contrary, Chinese writers represented by Guo Moruo holded an idea of ―use for me‖ as well as their consideration  of  China  at  that  time  in  the  introduction  of  foreign  literature.  Through  the researches above, this thesis also owns its significance. It is of great significance and value to discuss  the  causes  and  consequences  of  Guo  Moruo's  introduction  of  Synge's  plays  and compare the different preferences of Chinese and Japanese writers on Synge.  This paper not only provides more materials for domestic researchers to research Irish literature. In addition, by  comparing  the  similarities  and  differences  between  Chinese  and  Japanese  writers  in introducing Irish literature and Synge's works, the research further finds out the unique points of Chinese writers in introducing  Synge's plays. Finally, through such comparative studies, materials combing and close reading of the text, the paper reveals the shining points of Guo Moruo  in  the  translation  and  introduction  of  Irish  literature,  so  as  to  realize  its  practical significance.