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    Report是什么意思?(附Report模板)

    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-06 论文字数:2990字
    论文编号: sb2020030508365829767 论文语言:English 论文类型:-
    全面总结了report的方方面面,同学们快看过来,干货集锦!
    小编今天为大家讲一下,在众多留学生公认比Essay还复杂的Report。Essay 主要呈现给大家的是评论,通过对其他作者的研究和文章的分析,并结合现在社会的情况,由作者进行一个主题的分析以及定论,而Report主要展示的主要是有依据的数据和信息,由于文中数据和图标统计的复杂性,单单用在调查数据统计和制作图标就需要同学们花费很多时间和精力,更别提还有Report其他很多部分没写呢,不过没事,这篇文章小编主要帮助大家理顺Report的写作技巧,只要多利用一些辅助的工具,平时提升自己的英语词汇量和阅读量,多多积累些制作素材,那么相信大家写Report的难度会降低很多,此文小编就给大家说一下Report是什么,以及它的Report模板结构和范文。

    1.Report的大致结构
    Report一般由以下七个部分组成:Cover Page (通常很多同学忘记了这一项) 、Table of ContentsExecutive SummaryIntroductionBodyConclusion/RecommendationReference.


    2. Report人称别乱用
    Report写作中,如果主人翁的假设的内容的话,就不能使用第一人称和第二人称。

    3. Report内容写作方面
    1) Report的本质就是更注重实践,所以大家在写Report的时候一定要少写点理论,多结合实际情况分析去写。 
    2) 数据和图表一定要准确。如果不是自己调研总结所得出的数据,那么一定要在文中解释清楚。
     
    4. Report六部分写作注意事项: 
    1) 封面页(Cover Page):包括文章标题,课程代码,学号,指导老师,字数统计等
    2) Table of Contents:必须使用Microsoft Office Word自动生成Content格式。 
    3)Executive Summary:一般来说,这部分主要介绍 这篇Report的研究内容、研究对象、研究目的、研究意义等等一些概括性的东西。而在写作的时候最好使用 “The main purpose of this report is to……”这样的标志性语句。 
    4) Introduction:Introduction部分相当于是一个Background,而不是概括Report的内容。Introduction不概括文章内容、不介绍文章结构,不要让老师在文章的刚开始就读到很多重复的内容。 
    5) Body:正文的写作要坚持“少理论,不空谈,多结合实际情况分析”原则。根据要求具体分析,用证据支撑、用事实说话。列出标题、次级标题、有必要时列出下一级标题。每段内容用简洁的语言 提炼出要点关键词,然后进行解释和阐述。 
    6) Conclusion / Recommendation:只要大家前面几个部分都是认真完成了,那么结论这部分也就是水到渠成,很顺利的就可以完成。 
    7) Reference: Reference 是导师最看重的,绝对不能出现编造的情况,一定要真实。国外对这个问题查得很严。一旦查出有作假或抄袭情况,会直接挂科,甚至开除学籍。一般来说,Reference包含两个部分,一种是In-Text Reference 也就是在文章里的Reference,一种是在文章最后出现的Reference, 也就是Reference List。一篇论文须要包含文中的In-Text Reference和文末的Reference List。老师有明确要求Report文章中几个Reference的,根据要求来把握;如果没有具体要求说必须有多少Reference List的话,大家就按照每千字3-4个来写就可以了。
    Reference格式标注办法,一般论文要求中会明确提到。以下是国外大学中常用的Reference格式: 
    -Harvard referencing system 哈佛文献标记系统 
    -CMS: Chicago Manua芝加哥写作和文献标注系统: 
    -APA Style:American Psychological Association. 美国心理学会写作和文献标记办法 
    -AMA:American Medical Association 美国医学会文献标注系统 
    -MLA: 现代语言学会写作和文献标注系统 
    -CSE: Council of Science科技编辑理事会文献标记和写作办法)
    8) 字体格式:Report如果没有明确要求字体大小的话,一般用用times new roman字体;12(小四);1.5倍行距;Word默认页边距;标题字体可加粗;每段落之间空一行;每段直接写,无需空格;在每页的右下角插入页数。老师布置Report作业的时候如果有明确要求字体格式、大小等时,留学生们最好老老实实的按照老师的要求去写。
     
     
    5. Report 模板结构如下:
    第一段:背景段 
    第一句:介绍社会背景(如果觉得累赘可以不写)
    第二句:交待你这篇文章要分析的是哪一个话题
    第三句:强调一下这个问题正在引起人们的关注(或强调一下这个问题的原因有诸多方面)
    第四句:说明这篇文章要分析这个现象的原因和解决方案

    第二段:原因段 
    第一句:总述这种现象由多种原因导致
    第二句:写这种现象的第一个原因
    第三句:写一句话来解释、支持这个原因
    第四句:写这种现象的第二个原因
    第五句:写一句话来解释、支持这个原因
    第六句:写这种现象的第三个原因
    第七句:写一句话来解释、支持这个原因

    第三段:措施段或影响段
    第一句:总述我们可以通过多种方式解决这一问题或这一问题可以带来诸多影响
    第二句:解决方案一或影响一
    第三句:写一句话来解释、支持这一方案或影响 
    第四句:解决方案二或影响二
    第五句:写一句话来解释、支持这一方案或影响 
    第六句:解决方案二或影响二
    第七句:写一句话来解释、支持这一方案或影响

    第四段:总结段
    第一句:写这个现象的原因有很多
    第二句:概括的写下我们可以通过哪三种措施解决或这个问题带来的三个影响
    http://www.workforlgbt.org/

    下面,让我们欣赏一篇商科Report

    -Executive Summary
    The executive summary provides a synopsis of the report. It should include:
    l     A statement on the purpose of the report – what it sets out to achieve
    l     A brief outline of the scope of the report and/or research methodology
    l     An outline of the major issues or findings covered in the report
    l     An outline of the major conclusions and recommendations of the report.
    The executive summary should not include new information nor should it be used as an introduction to the report. As the executive summary is a summary of the report, it should ALWAYS be the LAST section of the report written
     
    -Table of Contents
    1.    Executive Summary……………………………………………………    1
    Table of Contents ……………………………………………………   2
    2.    Introduction or Background   …………………………………………………… 3
    3.    Scope of Report or Research Objectives  ……………………………………………………  4
    4.    Research Methodology  ……………………………………………………  5
    4.1 Primary Sources
    4.2 Secondary Sources
    5.    Detailed Findings   …………………………………………………… 6
    5.1 First Draft
    5.2 Second Draft
    6.    Conclusions and Recommendations……………………………………………………    7
    6.1 Conclusion
    6.2 Recommendations
    7.  Bibliography……………………………………………………… 8
    APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………….9
     
    -Introduction or Background
    It may include an outline of the terms of reference or the reasons for the decision to write the report (see below).
    Explain the background to the issue/problem/topic (this could be the history, etc. that helps us understand the issue/problem/topic.
    What are the different points of view/opinions about the issue/problem/topic.
    What is likely to happen in the future?
    This report was requested by a number of students having difficulty understanding how to write a report.
    This report aims to give students a plan to follow when preparing their material and an example of the layout of a report.
    The material for this report was gathered from various books and web sites which will be referred to later. This format is not the only way to write a report.
    It is written especially for students undertaking Academic English. However, it can be a useful guide to any student in any subject.
     
    -Scope of Report or Research Objectives
    Outline the purpose of your report. The scope of the report should define major issues or research objectives to be addressed by the report.
    If in doubt, ask you teacher. They may be able to help you find the right place to look for information.
     
    -Research Methodology
    Most reports will include:
    1) primary sources of information – surveys, questionnaires
    2) secondary sources of information – books, internet
    This section needs to detail how the information for the report was obtained and any limitations. The place to start is in your own head. How much do you already know about the topic? Write everything down.
    Use the library. Not just the internet. There are books, magazines, newspapers, and staff to help you. Take notes and organize the information in a folder.
    Remember to write down all the information about any book or web site, etc. for the bibliography: author, title, date published, publisher and place published (see Appendix B of this report).
    Note taking skills are necessary when reading information and you must summaries much of that information.
     
    -Detailed Findings
    The largest section of the report – it will contain all the information and analysis, including tables, charts and diagrams.
    The body must be divided into logical sections and subsections with headings identical to those in the Table of Contents.
    It will include headings and sub-headings which reflect the contents of each section.
    Although a report starts with a synopsis do not start writing it until AFTER you finish the introduction, body and conclusion in that order.
    1) FIRST DRAFT
    Divide the body of the report into headings and subheadings, so each section can be written on its own. This makes the task seem easier.
    Use the passive voice (revise this section of English on Cue, Module 5). Use short sentences and simple, formal language. Include pictures if you want to make it more interesting e.g.” Diagram 2 shows that……”
    Use your computer’s spell check and print preview where possible. Plan the pages carefully. Careless layout will lose marks. Check grammar and punctuation.
    When referencing a book, etc. in your writing remember quoting directly must use quotation marks e.g. “There are many reasons why people visit Australia…” (Smith 2012).
    Indirect quotes (paraphrasing): Smith (2012) says there are many different reasons people want to visit Australia.
    Save two copies: one on your computer and one on a USB. Lost work means starting again.
    2) SECOND DRAFT
    Producing the second draft is not hard once your first draft of the report is edited, typed and saved.
     
    -Conclusion and Recommendations
    This is a summary of the main findings of the report, especially those that are for the reader/client.
    Conclusion should tell what the detailed findings mean for the reader/client in relation to the scope of the report or research objectives.
    The recommendations should list the action that you recommend should be taken based on these conclusions.
    1) CONCLUSION
    It is hoped this guide will benefit students in at least two ways. Firstly, to give a step by step method to report writing. Secondly, it is to be used as an example of report writing.
    The process of report writing is obviously a long and complex one. Each step should be completed before moving on to the next one. Do NOT put off starting to research and write just because it is difficult.
    Make sure the information in the report is relevant to the topic and discusses the issues mentioned in the introduction.
    2) RECOMMENDATIONS
    + Take one step at a time
    + Do not waste time
    + Use all the resources available
    + Talk to your teacher if in doubt
    + Start now
     
    -BIBLIOGRAPHY
    The bibliography is an alphabetical list of references used in preparation of the report
    Students should refer to their textbook for guidelines on how to correctly reference information sources.
    Jordan, R.R (1990) Academic Writing Course, Collins ELT, London.
    Mangubhai, Francis and Pritchard, R (1996) English on Cue, USQ, Toowoomba.
    http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/ecologicalfootprint/globalfootprint/index.asp

    -APPENDIX
    The appendices section is for material that is relevant and is referred to in the report but is too long or is not necessary to be included in the body of the report.
    Examples:  Questionnaire
    Appendices to be labelled:  Appendix A, Appendix B etc.
     
    -WRITING A BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Take careful note of the order in which the information appears below – alphabetically! The format is different for books, magazines and internet. Most entries begin with an author but if not then the title, etc. is shown.

    1.0 BOOKS
    Author’s family name, initial or first name, (date of publication), title in italics, name of publisher, place where published.
    Barron, M L (2010) Business Finance, McGraw-Hill, Sydney.
    Kitchen, P D (Ed.) (1997) Business Law: Fundamentals, Thompson, London.
    Brown, M and White, P (2000) Writing Assignments, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne.

    2.0 JOURNALS/MAGAZINES/NEWSPAPERS
    Author’s family name, initial or first name, (date of publication),“title of article”, name of journal in italics, volume number, (issue number), pp. numbers.
    Smith, B (2002) “Can you write an essay?” ,Education Times, 64, (10), pp. 24-28.
    Mitchell, Ben (2000) “Students fail English test”, Xin Hua, 13 September, p. 5.

    3.0 Web Sites
    Author’s family name, first name/initial, (date of publication), title of page in italics, URL, date accessed. Or
    Title of page, URL, date accessed.
    Quinion, M, (1996) Citing online sources. Advice on online citations formats http://www.worldwidewords.org/articles/citation.htm (Accessed 7.9.2013)
    Information resource, www.immi.gov.au/visas (Accessed 20/10/2012)
    http://www.workforlgbt.org/


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