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    Case Study干货经典分析

    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-08 论文字数:0字
    论文编号: sb2020030518461929771 论文语言:English 论文类型:-
    所谓案例研究(Case Study),是许多形式作业之一,案例分析是英国学生的研究案例是对现有问题、故事和典型教育事例的合理分析和教育案例,这种合理分析的结果事例研究是案例研究的结果的表
    所谓案例研究(Case Study),是许多形式作业之一,案例分析是英国学生的研究案例是对现有问题、故事和典型教育事例的合理分析和教育案例,这种合理分析的结果事例研究是案例研究的结果的表出,当然,教育案例是案例研究成果对教育案例的呈现。
    The so-called case study refers to case analysis, which is also one of the many forms of homework in the UK, the case of British students Study is a case study report, which is a rational analysis of the existing problematic, story and typical education cases, and education cases are the result of this kind of rational analysis; cases are the expression of the results of case studies, of course, education cases are the presentation of the results of case studies on education cases.


    不同案例的类型研究方法
    Different types of case study reserch methods:
    In business research, four common case study approaches are distinguished.
    1. First, there is the "no theory first"(无理论优先)type of case study design, which is closely connected to Kathleen M. Eisenhardt's methodological work.
    2. The second type of research design is about "gaps and holes"(缺口与漏铜), following Robert K. Yin's guidelines and making positivist assumptions.
    3. A third design deals with a "social construction of reality"(现实的社会结构), represented by the work of Robert E. Stake.
    4. Finally, the reason for case study research can also be to identify "anomalies"(识别异常); a representative scholar of this approach is Michael Burawoy.
     
    这四种方法都有各自的应用领域,但重要的是理解它们独特的本体论和认识论假设。这些方法在方法上有很大的差异.Each of these four approaches has its areas of application, but it is important to understand their unique ontological and epistomological assumptions. There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches.

    不同案例的研究类型方法

    在公共关系研究中,使用了三种类型的案例研究:

    Linear,
    Process-oriented,
    Grounded.


    在更广泛的案例研究范畴下,存在几个分支,每个分支都是根据研究者的目标定制的。这些类型的案例研究包括:
    说明性案例研究(Illustrative case studies).这些主要是描述性研究。它们通常利用一个或两个事件实例来显示现有的情况。说明性案例研究的主要目的是使不熟悉的人熟悉,并为读者提供有关该主题的共同语言。
    探索性(或试点)案例研究(Exploratory (or pilot) case studies).这些是在实施大规模调查之前进行的简明案例研究。它们的基本功能是在主要调查之前帮助确定问题和选择测量类型。这类研究的主要缺陷是,最初的发现似乎足够令人信服,且可以过早地作为结论发布。
    累积案例研究(Cumulative case studies).这些服务用于聚合在不同时间收集的多个站点的信息。这些研究背后的想法是,收集过去的研究将允许更广泛的概括,而不需要额外的成本或时间花费在新的,可能重复的研究上。
    关键案例研究它们检查一个或多个站点(Critical instance case studies).要么是为了检查对泛化几乎没有兴趣的独特情况,要么是为了质疑高度泛化或普遍的断言。这种方法对于回答因果问题是有用的。

    case study 结构

    案例选择与结构Case selection and structure

    一个普通的或典型的案例,往往不是信息最丰富的。在澄清历史和因果关系时,更有用的方法是选择那些提供有趣的、不寻常的或特别有启发性的情况的主题。基于代表性的案例选择很少能够产生这种洞察力。因此,研究者在选择个案研究时,会使用资讯导向的抽样,而非随机抽样。离群个案(即极端、偏离或非典型的个案)所揭示的资讯比潜在代表个案多,如为对事故进行更为定性的安全科学分析而选择的案例所见。选择案例可能是因为案例的内在利益或其周围的环境。另一种选择是因为研究人员具有深入的当地知识;如果研究人员具有这种当地知识,他们就可以像理查德·芬诺(Richard Fenno)所说的那样“浸泡和戳戳”("soak and poke"),从而根据对环境和环境的丰富知识提供合理的解释。

    因此,可区分三种情况供选择:

    关键案例(Key cases)
    异常情况(Outlier cases)
    地方知识案例(Local knowledge cases)

    无论选择案例研究主题(key, outlier, local knowledge)的参考框架是什么,都要区分案例研究的主题和对象。研究的主题是“实践的、历史的统一”,通过这种统一,我们可以看到研究的理论焦点。研究的对象是理论焦点——分析框架。
    除了关于案例选择和研究主题和对象的决定外,还需要对案例研究的目的、方法和过程做出决定。

    怎样创作Case study

    怎样创作Case study:

    案例研究的目的是引导读者了解问题的提出、提供的背景信息、给出的解决方案的描述以及它是如何得出的。可以编写一个案例研究来鼓励读者提出自己的解决方案,或者回顾已经实施的解决方案。作者的目标是让读者体验到与作者在研究所呈现的情况时相似的体验。
    在实际写任何东西之前,必须采取以下步骤:

    选择要写的情况(Choose the situation on which to write)
    收集尽可能多的有关情况的信息(Gather as much information as possible about the situation)
    分析形势的所有因素(Analyze all of the elements surrounding the situation)
    确定实施的最终解决方案(Determine the final solution implemented)
    收集有关解决方案工作或不工作的原因的信息(Gather information about why the solution worked or did not work)

    怎样创作Case study

    描述情况/问题(Describe the situation/problem:)

    读者需要清楚地了解寻求解决办法的情况。你可以明确说明研究中提出的问题。你可以从分享某个与你关系密切的人的名言开始。或者你可以提出一个问题The reader needs to have a clear understanding of the situation for which a solution is sought. You can explicitly state the problem posed in the study. You can begin by sharing quotes from someone intimate with the situation. Or you can present a question:
    ABC医院的术后感染率高于该地区其他医疗机构。
    美国广播公司医院的护理主任说:“尽管遵循严格的标准,我们仍然有很高的术后感染率。”
    为什么ABC医院的术后感染率高于该地区任何一家医疗中心?
    这为读者在阅读案例研究的其余部分时思考问题定下了基调。这也为读者提供了进一步了解情况所需的信息。

    提供背景(Give background)

    背景是您发现的描述问题原因的信息。这将包括来自权威来源的事实和数字。图表、图表、表格、照片、视频、音频文件和任何指向问题的内容在这里都很有用。Background is the information you discovered that describes why there is a problem. This will consist of facts and figures from authoritative sources. Graphs, charts, tables, photos, videos, audio files, and anything that points to the problem is useful here. 采访中的引述也是不错的。您还可以包括一些轶事信息:
    “根据这家工厂以前的员工说,这已经是好几年的问题了”
    本节不包括作者的意见:
    “我认为感染审查程序没有严格执行”
    在本节中,您将向读者提供他们可以用来得出自己结论的信息。就像写一个谜一样,你给读者提供了一些线索,读者可以从中决定如何解决这个谜。从所有这些证据来看,问题是怎么变成问题的?如何扭转这种趋势,使问题消失?
    一个好的案例研究不能告诉读者该怎么想。它引导读者通过用于创建最终结论的思维过程。读者可能会得出自己的结论,或在所呈现的逻辑中发现错误。没关系,因为这个问题可能有不止一个解决方案。读者在阅读案例研究时会有自己的视角和背景。

    描述解决方案(Describe the solution)

    本节讨论解决方案和导致它的思想过程。它引导读者通过信息找到已实现的解决方案。本节可能包含作者的观点和推测。This section discusses the solution and the thought processes that lead up to it. It guides the reader through the information to the solution that was implemented. This section may contain the author’s opinions and speculations.
    决定将涉及事实,但也可能有主观思维:
    “考虑到A、B和C,委员会提出了解决办法X。委员会认为这是最审慎的做法,而不是目前的预算情况。”
    简要介绍用于导出解决方案的关键元素。明确解决方案的目标。是放慢速度,减少还是消除问题?

    评估对解决方案的响应(Evaluate the response to the solution)

    如果案例研究是针对最近的情况,则可能没有足够的时间来确定解决方案的总体效果If the case study is for a recent situation, there may not have been enough time to determine the overall effect of the solution:
    “第一季度通过了新的感染标准,中心希望在年底前获得足够的信息来判断其有效性。”
    如果解决方案已经存在一段时间,那么就有机会收集和审查事实和印象。这里将包括解决方案工作情况的摘要。

    讲述整个故事(Tell the whole story)

    案例研究写作是讲述一个已经解决的问题的故事。重点是问题的证据和用于创建解决方案的方法。写作风格引导读者完成问题分析,就好像他们是项目的一部分。其结果是一个既有趣又有教育意义的案例研究。Case study-writing is about telling the story of a problem that has been fixed. The focus is on the evidence for the problem and the approach used to create a solution. The writing style guides the readers through the problem analysis as if they were part of the project. The result is a case study that can be both entertaining and educational.

    Case Study范文

    留学生Case Study范文:戴尔供应链案例研:

    Introduction 简介
     
    Dell organization was built up in November 4, 1984. It is an American multinational data innovation company situated in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that creates, offers and backings PCs and related items and administrations. The organization is one of the biggest innovative enterprises on the planet, utilizing more than 103,300 individuals around the world. The name of its founder is Michael Dell. He was the most youthful CEO to direct an organization to a Fortune 500 positioning. It generates an income of USD 63.07 billion yearly. The company manufactures desktop computers, notebook computers, network servers, work stations, storage products and customization of each product with the suppliers being Microsoft for windows, Intel for microprocessors, Nvidia for graphics chips and Sony for the monitors.
     
    As discussed in the case study, Dell keeps up a decent connection with the provider (supplier) and help them to center on the innovative capacities to support initiative segments in the light of the fact that in the realm of quick change in the innovation , research and development expenses are roughly significantly higher for a company to keep up monopoly in their segment. This is the reason that suppliers are asked to keep a lot sizes and stock as low as reasonably be expected. Dell always focus on its customer research and use that research to help suppliers and itself. As far as inventory details and new orders are concerned, Dell has build a web page , where suppliers can view order details and can plan how much and when to provide the product to dell based on actual demand of the consumer, which will decreases the bullwhip effect on supplier end. The main motive of the dell is to work with supplier as a team and to reduce the customer order line and to keep moving the Supply Chain. At that point with the joint efforts of the whole provider`s, Dell can provide a large variety of alternatives to their clients and can work to accomplish a quick throughput.
     
    FIRST MOVER ADVANTAGE
     
    If we see on the distribution side dell is mainly dependent on direct sales through internet, in order to enhance income by offerings large varieties of desktops, notebooks and enterprises products. All these are displayed on company's websites and customers can directly purchase from it. Even customers can place order from anywhere at any time. On comparing online and retail dell computer purchase, online is cheaper because of the brick and mortar model. In dell company whenever the new product is manufactured at the same time it is introduced over the company`s website. Whereas the competing companies firstly produces the product and then introduce the product after it reaches the retail store for selling. That is why Dell has an advantage of introducing new product early in the market, said to be first mover advantage.
     
    DELL OFFERS A BETTER MATCH TO DEMAND AND SUPPLY
     
    Dell company has designed its manufacturing and assembling process in such a way that product is manufactured in a couple of minutes. In this way earlier production can be postpone and new product can be manufactured according to the order received and once new product is manufactured, the postpone production again starts. As it offers modularity and tight scheduling. Whereas the other companies sell their products through retailers and wholesalers and they find impossible to postpone production.
     
    ENJOY CASH FLOW ADVANTAGE
     
    The best part is that due to direct sales dell company eliminates the extra cost and margins lead by retailers and wholesalers. Point to note that dell operates at negative working capital as it receive it payments before it pays its suppliers and enjoy cash flow advantage .
     
    DRABACKS
     
    On the darker part, Dell company bear a high shipping cost then selling their product to retailers and wholesalers. In this way dell has to bear shipping cost for each product when ordered by customers, whereas other companies bear large shipment via tucks to warehouses and finally then to retailers which is less expensive per unit.
     
    DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
     
    1. How has Dell use its direct sales model and build to order model to improve its supply chain?
     
    Ans: Dell Company's path of action is to enhance technological capabilities to compete and enjoy continuous leadership. Special Web pages are designed to encourage supplier's to meet customer's demand by driving down lead times, lot sizes and inventories. Focussing on their distribution path, Dell offers variety of it's component, virtually through the internet leading to increase in their revenue. Customer's can choice their products based on their value choice. Customers can select products during any time by recommending product configurations or customizing them and also based on their purchase history and current needs.
     
    Direct Sales and build to order model are use by the Dell to build supply chain by synchronizing the process from the starting to it's completion. Dell produce products on the basis of their customer's order and execute accordingly after receiving the payment. No Products are produced prior to customer's order and based on the order procurement starts. So first step of the company si to do research of customer's preference and then based on it, a design is made which is displayed on the web site. Integration of supplier's is done through web page, which displays the orders that are not yet executed, giving supplier's the vital information to structure their plan based on the requirement. These models have been proved exceptionally useful by drastically decreasing the overall process timing to a couple of hours in comparison to months. Increase in cash flow is also witnessed as the payment is received by the company before making the payment to their suppliers.
     
    2. How has Dell exploited the direct sales model to improve operations performance?
     
    Ans: Dell produce products for the customers who have value for choice from different part of the world. Internet played a key role in the success of the direct sales model. The Products with high life cycle in an industry face difficulty to compete with dell, who enjoys advantage of early market. Dell introduces the first model to customers in form of a new product. Supplier's are directly linked to the orders, so that they know the quantity of components to be manufactured and shipped. The compression of supply chain give Dell a competitive advantage. Depreciation and write off of inventories costs are reduced as Turnover rate of inventory is 60 times per year. Negative cash conversion cycle is operated by Dell by using Direct sales model. Money is received by the company in advance to pay to it's supplier's for the components. No stocks are kept and orders are executed based on the customer's choice. Sale Price and orders of the product are received by the company, simultaneously, customer also receives the product accordingly to their preference within a short span of time.
     
    3. What are the main disadvantages of Dell's Direct Sales Model?
     
    Ans: The disadvantage of Dell's Direct Sales Model is the shipping cost and customer support service cost ,which the company has to bear after the sale is done. Dell bears the direct cost of shipping, as it deals directly with the customer and where retailers have no role to play. Other companies produce and send the products in bulk in comparison to Dell, who delivers small orders individually to customers. Dell bear all the related transaction costs from receiving the order to it's execution and after sale services. Direct Sales Model enjoys advantage of cost on the side of production but brings a disadvantage of cost on the side of support.
     
    4.How does Dell Compete with a retailer who already has a stock?
     
    Ans: The strategy adopted by Dell to compete with retailers, who already has a stock is by providing low price to customers, which is a result of low fixed cost. It also givies customers a chance to customize their product, according to their needs, by giving them virtual display over the internet, whereas in stores the supplies are limited. Dell Produce the products within hours and supplies to the buyers within a couple of days.
     
    5.How does Dell's supply chain deal with the Bullwhip effect?
     
    Ans: Supply Chain should be consistent to avoid Bullwhip effect in order to fulfil the demand accurately and within time with accurate forecasting of demand.
     
    Dell constructed web pages where supplier's can forecast the demand of components by viewing the stock available and avoiding the problems related to unnecessary components and products.

    如何写case study

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