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    来源: www.workforlgbt.org 发布时间:2020-03-06 论文字数:34584字
    论文编号: sb2020021810514629615 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
    本文是一篇语言学论文,本研究收集了中国国防部网站上公开发布的国防部例行记者会汉语及其英译文字实录,时间跨度为 2017 年 2 月-2018 年 12 月。首先,通过梳理前人英汉语情态意义实现方
    本文是一篇语言学论文,本研究收集了中国国防部网站上公开发布的国防部例行记者会汉语及其英译文字实录,时间跨度为 2017 年 2 月-2018 年 12 月。首先,通过梳理前人英汉语情态意义实现方式的讨论,本研究总结出英汉语中以情态操作语、情态附加语和情态隐喻为主的表达方式。其后,分析收集的记者会汉英文字实录中发言人的话语,依据韩礼德情态系统理论框架中提出的情态类型、情态取向和情态量值三个变量对其进行标记。最后,根据无情态偏移和情态偏移两种国防部例行记者会口译情态意义翻译进行描写性分析,并讨论了影响情态意义翻译的可能因素。

    Chapter One Introduction

    1.1 Research Background
    Press conferences of the Ministry of National Defense (referred to as MND hereafter) of the People’s Republic of China (referred to as PRC hereafter), as a form of official discourse, play an essential role in making a formal expression of China’s political views, promoting its political  philosophy,  and  guiding  public  opinions  both  at  home  and  abroad.  In  military diplomacy,  MND  press  conferences  function  as  a  key  tool  for  manifesting  China’s  military stance and promoting mil-to-mil relations between China and other countries. 
    As  far  as  communication  is  concerned,  the  expression  and  implication  of  what  a communicator  means  or  intends  to  do  is  more  or  less  related  to  his/her  attitudes,  stances, judgments and so on, which, generally speaking, all come under the concept of modality. The modality  system,  as  discussed  in  Halliday’s  (1994,  2004,  2009,  2014)  Systemic  Functional Grammar, has always been regarded as a vital language device in realizing the interpersonal meta-function of a discourse as one of the three meta-functions (ideational, interpersonal and textual meta-functions) defined by him. Through the device of modality, a speaker is able to participate in a certain context, and thus to reveal his/her attitudes and to try to exert influence on others’ attitudes and acts. 
     In the context of official discourse, an accurate as well as effective way of expression is demanded  in  case  the  information  of  a  nation’s  stance  and  attitude  intended  to  deliver  be mis-expressed,  mis-decoded  and  misjudged.  The  translation  of  spokespersons’  discourses  in MND  press  conferences,  demands  even  more  attention  to  those  attitude-related  parts  of  the language,  for  the  fact  that  declaration  of  our  stance  in  military  affairs  in  particular  usually involves  state  sovereignty  and  territorial  integrity,  the  loss  and  gain  in  a  nation’s  political, economic  and  military  interests,  and  even  the  stability  of  the  surrounding  regions  and  the world at large. In that case, whether MND press conference interpreters are able to choose the accurate language resources in their interpretation is of great importance.

    1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
    This  thesis,  adopting  a  systemic  functional  approach,  aims  to  undertake  a  descriptive study  from  the  perspective  of  the  modality  system  to  offer  a  comprehensive  analysis  of modality  meaning  translation  in  MND  spokespersons’  discourses.  The analysis  will  examine both  modality  meaning  preservations  and  modality  meaning  shifts  in  press  conference interpreting (PRI). Specifically, distribution of grammatical resources for modality in modality preservations and tendencies in different types of modality shifts are summarized and analyzed and factors causing modality shifts are discussed.
    The significance of the thesis is two-fold. Theoretically, the study offers a description of modality systems in MND spokespersons’ discourses in both the source language (referred to as SL hereafter) and the target language (referred to as TL hereafter), which helps to grasp the big picture of how modality resources in Chinese is used as a crucial grammatical resource in the  construction  of  this  type  of  official  discourse,  and  how  modality  resources  in  English  is applied  to  reconstruct  the  discourse.  Practically,  the  analysis  helps  to  get  an  in-depth understanding  of  the  official  discourse  generated  by  the  governmental  military  entity,  and offers  feasible  ways  to  identify  modality  meanings  in  the  original  discourse  and  then  to reproduce  them  in  the  TL,  in  the  hope  to  help  promote  effectiveness  and  accuracy  of  our official discourses in international communication. A part from that, in this research, abundant work is done that may help interpreting learners to grasp basic rules about modality translation, including summary and classification of major types of modality expressions in both Chinese and  English,  comparisons  among  similar  Chinese  expressions,  and  analysis  on  Chinese  and English  modality  expressions  that  are  semantically  “equivalent”  and  could  be  taken  as reciprocal counterparts in SL and TL.

    Chapter Two Literature Review

    2.1 Previous Studies on Translation of Modality Meanings
    The earliest discussion about modality translation between Chinese and other languages is made  by  Hu  Zhuanglin  (Hu  et  al.,  1989).  Based  on  three  meta-functions  in  Systemic Functional  Linguistics  (SFL),  Hu  et  al.  discuss  the  connotation  of  an  essential  concept  in translation  studies--“equivalence”,  including  achieving  equivalence  of  modality  meanings between Chinese and English. From then on, systemic functional approach is widely adopted in researches on C-E/E-C modality translation and interpreting.
    2.1.1 Studies on Modality Meanings in Literary Translation
    Huang (2001, 2002, 2003) is the earliest Chinese scholar who introduces theories of SFL into  the  discussion  of  strategies  in  translating  Chinese  ancient  poetry.  Theory  of  modality system  is  included.  His  discussion  starts  from  Halliday’s  (2001:16)  claim  that  translators should try to achieve meta-functional equivalence during the translation process. Huang then takes  the  discussion  into  practice  and  analyzes  how  ideational,  interpersonal,  and  textual functional equivalences are achieved in different translations of Chinese ancient poetry. As an essential element to realize interpersonal function, modality meaning translation is attached to due  importance.  Li  (2007:105),  in  his  Ph.D.  dissertation,  assesses  interpersonal  function equivalence realized in five English versions of Shu Dao Nan (《蜀道难》) within Halliday’s framework. He argues that to translate modality meanings of a poem properly, a translator is expected to recognize four vectors of type, value, orientation and polarity. In his prescriptive study,  Li  manages  to  apply  the  theory  of  modality  system  to  translation  quality  assessment. However, in some of his discussions, he seems to fail to deal with the incompatibility between the Chinese language and Halliday’s modality system.

    2.2 Previous Comparative Studies on Modality in Official Discourses
    Apart  from  discussions  on  modality  from  the  perspective  of  translation  studies, comparative  linguistics  analysis  of  modality  in  official  discourses  from  China  and  other countries, also sheds light on the present study. Jiang (2015) compares modal expressions in Military Report of China and U.S. Military Assessment Reports published by both sides since 2011  within  the  framework  of  functional  grammar,  and  concludes  that  in  both  reports, modalization  takes  a  larger  percentage  than  modulation;  low  and  median  value  modal expressions  are  more  frequently  used  than  those  with  high  modality  value;  more  objective explicit  modal  expressions  are  used  than  other  three  orientations.  She  then  argues  that  such similarities  may  result  from  both  reports’  informative  function  and  the  requirement  to  be objective and acceptable. Meanwhile, she also finds out certain differences and discusses the possible  causes:  1)  to  emphasizes  the  writers’  authoritative  position,  more  modal  words  of obligation are used in the Chinese corpus than in the English one; 2) due to different thinking patterns, almost no expansion of predicator and nominalization is used in the Chinese corpus. She  believes  such  analysis  of  modality  meanings  “in  military  discourses  will  help  to  have  a more profound understanding of the hidden intentions”.
    Zhu Xuan (2014) examines the preference of modality meaning realization in State of the Union Address (SUA) of the US and the Report on the Work of Government (RWG) of China published from 2011-2013. Her findings are as follows: though modal operators are the most frequently used type of expression in both reports, richer modality resources are deployed in SUA,  with  RWG  relying  mainly  on  modal  operators  and  adjuncts.  Besides,  different  from Jiang’s  study  mentioned  above,  Zhu’s  research  reflects  two  opposite  results:  1)  in  terms  of modality type, modulation takes a larger percentage than modalization in both reports and 2) except  in  modality  types  of  probability  and  usuality  in  RWG,  subjective  orientations  take  a dominant percentage in both reports. She argues that such features can result from cultures and political systems that generate the discourses.

    Chapter Three Theoretical Framework .................................................... 13
    3.1 Types of Modality ............................................ 14
    3.2 Values of Modality ....................................... 15
    Chapter Four Methodology ...................................... 19
    4.1 Research Questions ............................................. 19
    4.2 Data Collection ........................................ 19
    Chapter Five Preservations and Shifts of Modality Meanings in the English Transcripts of the Conference .................................... 27
    5.1 Preservations of the Original Modality Meanings ........................... 27
    5.1.1 Probability ....................................... 28
    5.1.2 Usuality ........................................ 30

    Chapter Five Preservations and Shifts of Modality Meanings in the English Transcripts of the Conference

    5.1 Preservations of the Original Modality Meanings
     The discussion of translations that stay in the same modality type, orientation and value is fundamental in the present study. Although most studies, even including this one, put emphasis on changes of modality meanings in translation, for the obvious reason that directly choosing corresponding TL modal expressions may be taken for granted by interpreters, these “direct” choices  remain  essential  and  fundamental  to  the  analysis  of  the  whole  modality  system construed in the TT. One can get a preliminary grasp of these features through the proportions taken by preservations and shifts in modality translation of spokespersons’ discourses. Out of the 720 pairs of clauses identified as containing modality meanings, 579 pairs keep the same modality meanings in the TT, which take up as much as 80.1 percent of all modal clauses. At the same time, shifts occur in 141 pairs, which take up 19.9 percent.
    Table 5-1 Proportion of Preservations and Shifts in the TT
    Table 5-2 Modal Expressions in Modals of Probability

    Chapter Six Conclusion

    6.1 Major Findings
    The  thesis  gives  an  overall  description  of  interpreting  of  modality  meanings  in  MND spokespersons’ discourses. The description is separated into two parts: modality preservations and modality shifts in translation. The major findings are as follows.
    Firstly, among cases of modality meaning translation, modality preservations take up 80.1 percent, which play the dominant role, while modality shifts take up 19.9 percent.
    Secondly,  in  modality  preservations,  the  description  is  conducted  according  to  modality types of probability, usuality, obligation and inclination. Three observations are made. (1) In terms  of  types  of  modal  expressions,  all  three  types  are  applied  in  both  the  ST  and  TT,  i.e. modal  operators,  combination  of  modal  operators  and  adjuncts,  and  metaphor  of  modality, indicating  that  as  an  important  resource  that  humans  resort  to  for  interpersonal  exchanges, Chinese and English modality systems share a lot in common, which is convenient for a large part of modal clauses to be interpreted “correspondingly”. Interpreters should have the ability not only to identify different types of modal expressions, but also to find the “corresponding” way of expression in English based on the shared features between Chinese and English. (2) Although  congruence  between  the  two  languages’  modality  system  brings  a  relatively systematic means for the “corresponding” translation, gaps do exist. As confirmed by Halliday (2004: 630), there are no systematic forms for making the subjective orientation explicit in the case  of  usuality  or  inclination  in  English,  and  the  same  is  true  in  Chinese.  This  leads  to  no metaphorical  expressions  for  explicitly  subjective  orientations  in  usuality  and  for  inclination modals at all in both the ST and TT. Another gap existing in the Chinese usuality modal is that modal operators are not resorted to as a way of expression in the modality type, which results in  the  lack  of  modal  operators  for  usuality  in  the  TT.  (3)  In  translating  implicitly  subjective orientation,  interpreters  have  more  restricted  choices  of  modal  operators  and  modal  adjuncts compared with what are used in the ST. Abundant modal operators as well as modal adjuncts in  Chinese  bear  subtle  differences  pragmatically  speaking  and  thus  enables  a  speaker  of Chinese to choose among several similar ones, leading to many-to-one relationships between Chinese and English when they are interpreted.